An antibody (also known as an immunoglobulin) is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen. It is a Y-shaped molecule composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, which are held together by disulfide bonds.
Each peak of the Y-shaped structure contains a paratope that can specifically bind to the appropriate antigenic epitope. Monoclonal and polyclonal are the two main types of antibodies. To get more information about antibodies, you can also browse https://www.bosterbio.com/featured-products.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognize antigens and bind to epitopes, whereas polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) recognize antigens but bind to many different epitopes.
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The manufacturing processes for mAbs and pAbs are different and both provide important support for research and diagnostic purposes. The procedure for obtaining each type of antibody is described below:
Antibodies can then be used in a variety of applications including, but not limited to: western blot (WB), immunoprecipitation (IP), immunofluorescence (IF), immunohistochemistry (IHC), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and flow cytometry (FC).
As a cornerstone of the body's immune response, antibodies can provide important data to support scientists' research.
Let's take a closer look at Western Blotting (WB) to better understand antibodies. WB is an important and widely used technique in biological experiments. This method allows researchers to identify specific proteins in homogenate samples or tissue extracts.
Antibodies are an important part of performing a WB analysis and the choice of antibody used can significantly affect the final result. This procedure requires the use of primary and secondary antibodies.